Apart from the tense markers mentioned, third-person prefixes distinguish between present, past, hypothetic and imperative tenses, as will be seen below. De la formalisation du système verbal basque. sar as above, but the perfective participle instead, i.e. For example, the verb etorri 'come' has the basic stem -tor- from which are derived both the participle etorri (with the non-finite prefix e- and the participle suffix -i) and the finite present stem -ator- and non-present stem -etor-. The Basques (/ b ɑː s k s / or / b æ s k s /; Basque: euskaldunak [eus̺kaldunak]; Spanish: vascos; French: basques) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. In western and central dialects and in standard Basque, izan is used as its participle, i.e. Such arguments are indexed in a different way from 'primary' arguments. It bit me. In colloquial Basque, an informal relationship and social solidarity between the speaker and a single interlocutor are expressed by employing a special mode of speech often referred to in Basque as either hika or hitano (both derived from hi, the informal second-person pronoun; in other places the same phenomenon is named noka and toka for female and male interlocutors respectively). Originally this expressed a pluperfect, i.e. sar as above, but the perfective participle instead, i.e. The choice of auxiliaries in Basque seems to be largely dependent on the valency of the predicate. Another verb, egon, is used in western dialects (and in writing) as a second verb 'to be' in a way similar to estar in Spanish. The first row of that terrifying table is the hardest to learn. Person of the ergative marker may be indexed in one of two ways: using suffixes or prefixes. noon joan -nadin * … The present stem is used in the present tense, the present potential tense and the non-third-person imperative, e.g. The ergative prefixes are identical to the primary prefixes in the singular, but in the plural -en- is added to the primary prefix forms: The ergative plural suffix -te only occurs when required (a) to indicate the third person plural, or (b) to indicate the (real) second-person plural. Other unexpected properties are mentioned next. Had I known these were missing, I wouldn't have purchased. -abil- and -ebil- are the regular present and non-present stems of -bil-, -arabil- and -erabil- are the corresponding tense stems of -rabil-, and so on. A slot matrix like this has a few weak points. This article does not give a full list of verb forms; its purpose is to explain the nature and structure of the system. There are several constructions in Basque which are used to give something like imperative or hortative force, as exemplified in the following chart, based on the verb joan «to go»: Person Simple Periphrastic Simple +-(e)la Periphrastic +-(e) la 1 sg. Article in, Euskara Institutua, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) (2013), ", This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 20:04. Occasionally we find zero or -i instead. What Is Mood in Grammar? What is the Main Verb in a Sentence? Nominal and verbal morphology is essentially agglutinating, employing mostly suffixes to add grammatical information, though prefixes may be used in some verb forms to express subject and object. A third non-finite form which we shall call the "short stem" is obtained from the participle by omitting any of these suffixes except -n, which is retained in the short stem in those verbs whose participle has it. English speakers who want to learn Basque are hardly spoiled for choice, so Beginner's Basque is a decent inexpensive resource. (transitive) To record systematically. Basque: I buy it. ', (see also the bibliography in Basque grammar), Important set of words in the Basque language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basque_verbs&oldid=984736754, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It will help you learn some of the most commonly used verbs in the Basque language. Again, to avoid repetition, mention will not be made of the use of the -t(z)en form as an imperfect stem in the formation of periphrastic tenses (see above). By the time you come to learning the past and conditional forms, it’s a lot easier to process. An antipassive construction is a derived detransitivized construction with a two-place predicate, related to a corresponding transitive construction whose predicate is the same lexical item. Nevertheless, the following table serves to clarify the morphological structure of dative-argument verb forms. Don't forget to bookmark this page. For convenience, we shall refer to this as the set of 'primary person indices'. Dictionary; The following are the most usual Basque tenses. Basque has the status of a statutory provincial language in Basque Country of Spain where most speakers of Basque also speak Castilian. Hualde), I still wonder: how truly Basque is Basque pronunciation? Traditionally Basque verbs are cited using a non-finite form conventionally referred to as the participle (although not all its uses are really participial). By combining the four compound tense stems with various auxiliaries, one obtains four groups of compound tense, sometimes referred to in Basque grammar as "aspects", which we shall call Imperfect, Perfect, Future and Aorist (= "aspect"-less) respectively. ', Kaletik zetorrela hauxe kantatu zuen. 'I wonder if it's true' is easily recognised by speakers to be an ellipsis of Egia ote da? Consequence to a hypothetical premise (explicit or implied). The two standard aorist auxiliaries (see below) lack any non-finite forms, and so also have no obvious citation forms. Morphology. Morphology. The areas where native Basque speakers are most lik ely to be found covers totally or partially the seven lands of the Basque Country. The Basques are kent in the local leids as: Many forms possible according to this matrix do not occur. the same participle as for 'to be'; the two meanings are disambiguated by the context. The morphemes in the synthetic verb in Basque show a rather fixed ordering, which can be summarized as in Table 1. The first component is a lexical element which is often (but not always) an undeclined noun. Also don't forget to check the rest of our other lessons listed on Learn Basque. These are compatible with the modal particles, which they precede (e.g. The verbal noun and some other non-finite forms derived therefrom are as follows. Since 1 Basque and Proto-Basque may be analyzed as exhibiting every type of compound described by Bauer (2009). given that Basque has a quite productive way of forming verbs, simply adding to the base the suffix - tu (Uribe-Etxebarria 1989). Take for example this Basque … Basque is sometimes called an SOV (i.e. See Blevins (2018:6,32, 217-386) for exemplification. Morphologically these can all be derived via suffixation from the three non-finite forms presented at the beginning of this article: the participle, the verbal noun and the short stem. Some other constructions that commonly express a range of aspectual or modal notions show a greater degree of periphrasis than those considered so far. The Basque Country is found in the western Pyrenees, a land within Spanish borders to the West, and within French borders to the East. The participle is generally obtained from the basic stem by prefixing e- or i- (there is no rule; if the stem begins with a vowel, j- is prefixed instead), and suffixing -i (to stems ending in a consonant) or -n (to stems ending in a vowel). ); apart from this, they too immediately precede the finite verb form. in the future of bizi izan 'live', where we would expect bizi izango naiz for 'I will live', biziko naiz is more common, with -ko attached directly onto the lexical component {{lang|eu|bizi as if this were a verb. 'don't you know? The verb esan ('to say') possesses finite forms which have a different stem, -io- (e.g. There is another verb which also means 'have', at least in western dialects, namely eduki. Country (or Euskal Herria in Euskara). Its participle is izan. Compound verbs, especially those with the light verb egin, offer an alternative way (besides direct derivation with -tu, as seen above) for incorporating new verbs into the language, either through the incorporation of onomatopoeic words (kosk 'bite', oka 'vomit', hurrup 'sip' or 'slurp', klik 'click' ... ) or of loanwords (dantza 'dance', salto 'jump' etc.) Depending on the verb in question, there may also be some other changes: Eastern Basque dialects extend the allocutive system to the more polite form of address, zu (known as zuka or zutano), or the affectionate variant xu. Although I have a Basque grammar myself and have read some interesting articles on Basque phonology (by J.I. To avoid repetition, mention will not be made of the use of the participle as a perfect stem in the formation of periphrastic tenses (see above). -rabil- 'cause to move, use'). All conjugating verb stems (unless defective) can take the following set of person-indexing prefixes: n- (first-person singular), h- (second-person singular informal), g- (first-person plural), z- (second-person singular formal and second-person plural). That is, it has a case denoting the agent of an action. (On this step, think aloud using the verb tense chart from the introduction of the lesson) Label the verb using this system: p = past, pr = present, f = future. This is the basic future tense for all verbs. Enjoy the rest of the lesson! ', etc. The second-person singular polite (pronoun zu) is also treated as plural for this purpose (because originally it was a second-person plural), although syntactically and semantically singular. Basque pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). In the basic transitive construction, the patient-like argument is realized as a direct object; in the antipassive construction, that argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement. The choice of auxiliary depends on the "aspect" and also on whether the verb is intransitive or transitive. I walk. The participle and some other non-finite forms derived therefrom are as follows. The rules are similar. The modal verbs nahi izan and behar izan are also of this kind. Except in the aorist, the auxiliary for intransitives is the verb 'to be', while that for transitives is the verb 'to have'. Since 1 Basque and Proto-Basque may be analyzed as exhibiting every type of compound described by Bauer (2009). -litz, or the subjunctive, e.g. Write two sentences that use the other two tenses. ', Ez baituzu euskara ikasi, ez dituzu euskaldunak ulertzen. FUTURE STEM + hypothetic potential of 'be'/'have'. It bit me. We translate them into English using a bilingual dictionary, and for each (verb-noun) Basque pair we search all possible translation combinations in the dependency database built from an automatically parsed English corpus. Examples of this suffix are shown in Table 3. Leaving aside a small set of verbs (see 3.6.3. ', Hona etor dadila esango diot. The compounds shown in Table 1 are just a … Basque Verbs. -bil- 'go about, move (intr.)') chartless Without a chart or charts. Basque verbs are words that convey action (bring, read, walk, run), or a state of being (exist, stand). The non-present stem is used in the past and hypothetic tenses (non-potential and potential), and in third-person imperative forms, e.g. The future stem is obtained from the participle by adding -ko (-go after n). Many forms possible according to this matrix do not occur. O thir, 614,000 live in the Spaingie pairt o the Basque kintra an the remainin 51,800 live in the French pairt. Circle the verb. etor dadi-, never occur in such main-clause forms and these are therefore cited in subordinate forms such as balitz, etor dadin etc.). Ibarretxe-Antuñano Basque Locational Cases. That said, it has its shortcomings. Ez dut esan etorriko denik. z-ebil-en 'he went about' but n-enbil-en 'I went about', h-enbil-en 'you went about'; l-erabil-ke 'he would use it' but n-inderabil-ke 'he would use me'. (transitive) To draw a chart or map of. Note: The second -z- in zaituzte is not here a plural marker, but merely an epenthetic sound inserted where the sequence tute would otherwise occur; this happens in other similar cases as well, such as dituzte for *ditute. Learning the Basque Verbs is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. Such dialects have three levels of address: Compound tense forms consist of a non-finite verb form (the compound tense stem) and a finite auxiliary form. — The table is big. For example: Mahaia handia da. nator and etortzen naiz are not generally interchangeable); in others the contrast is more a matter of style or register, or else of diachrony (some synthetic forms of conjugation are archaic or obsolete). The verb 'to be', the most common verb in the language, is irregular and shows some stem allomorphy in its finite forms. Ba omen dator 'Supposedly she is coming.'. Details of conjugation depend on the light verb used, which may be one that has synthetic finite forms (e.g. The forms of verbs cited throughout the general presentation of the finite verb system are normally those that occur in main clauses. 'If you learn the Basque language, you will understand the Basques. Once you're done with the Euskara Verbs, you might want to check the rest of our Basque lessons here: Learn Basque. The dative-argument marker, whose regular form is -ki-, is added to basic verb stems to indicate that these are taking a dative argument. Basque pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). Some grammarians treat these as different defective verbs, while others consider them a single word with stem allomorphy. What Are the English Verb Tenses? Originally this tense expressed perfect in a present time-frame, e.g. as lexical components. The subject of the transitive verb (that is, the agent) is marked differently, with the ergative case (shown by the suffix -k). The imperfect stem is the verbal noun (see above) plus the suffix -n. The form of the short stem was discussed above. 'I think she will come. Basque: I buy it. Only the primary plural marker, if present, and the dative-argument marker precede the dative suffix. The verbal noun stem, another non-finite form, is obtained by replacing the suffixes -i and -n (and also -tu or -du, see below) of the participle by either -tze or -te. Finite verbs that have an argument in the dative case also index the dative argument using the following set of dative suffixes (which are identical in form to the ergative suffixes except in the third person): Both intransitive and transitive verbs may take dative indices, and the mechanism for incorporating these is the same in either case. Instead of the ergative suffixes, ergative prefixes are used to index first- or second-person ergative arguments if the tense is non-present and the direct object is third person (see the gaps in the previous table). Izan is used to express a quality of something, while egon is used to express a state (e.g. There is also another large group of verbs which again have only non-finite forms, in which the non-finite stem is unanalysable (as a verb, at least), thus there is no e-/i-/j- prefix. Other grammarians refer to 'to have' as *edun, which is a hypothetical, unattested form derived from the finite stem -du-; again, the problem is that *edun does not exist in real Basque usage. given that Basque has a quite productive way of forming verbs, simply adding to the base the suffix - tu (Uribe-Etxebarria 1989). If you want to learn irregular verbs, you need to practice, practice, practice. Only a limited class of verbs can be conjugated synthetically and nearly all of these only defectively. Nahiz eta oraintxe zailegi iruditzen zaizun, gutxi barruan, lortuko duzu! One of the remarkable characteristics of the Basque verb is the fact that only a very few verbs can be conjugated synthetically (i.e. With dynamic verbs and stative ones with synthetic conjugation, expresses habitual action in the past (. 'You will have a good time while/when (you are) learning Basque. izan), or a verb without synthetic finite forms (e.g. The stems of these secondary verbs may be (1) a nominal or other non-verbal stem (e.g. Ibarretxe-Antuñano Basque Locational Cases. A few verb stems have an irregular dative-argument form. Basque verbs have a fairly wide range of non-finite forms. Don’t waste your time, paper, and money writing out tons of flashcards by hand. The auxiliaries adopt all the argument indices (for subject, direct object and/or indirect object as the case may be, as well as the allocutive where applicable) that correspond to the verb within its clause. Verb Games. This article does not give a full list of verb forms; its purpose is to explain the nature and structure of the system. Basque is, in the first place, a language of the so-called ergative type. Basque verbs have a fairly wide range of non-finite forms. Both of the suffixes, however, may take further suffixes (mostly nominal declension suffixes) which serve to further specify the type of subordination. When the verb possesses synthetic finite forms, these are based on an ultimate stem (called the "basic stem" here) which is normally also present in the participle. In synthetically conjugated light-verb constructions such as bizi naiz 'I live' or maite dut 'I love', care must be taken not to confuse the light verb (naiz, dut...) with tense auxiliaries; bizi naiz and maite dut are simple present forms, for example. Learning the Basque Verbs is very important because its structure is used in … This throws a wrench into the chart above for learners of Basque. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Basque vocabulary. Given that Basque verbs are conventionally cited in their participle form, this presents a problem for metalinguistic terminology, because the verb izan is ambiguous. Derived languages Edit There is now a unified version called Batua ("unified" in Basque), which is the language taught in schools. A larger number of Basque verbs have no finite forms, but their non-finite forms follow the same pattern described above (they show an e-/i-/j- prefix, and the participle ends in -i, -n or occasionally zero.