In terms of religious comparison, scholars consider Judaism and the Druze faith as ethnoreligious groups,[233] and both practice endogamy,[19] and both typically do not proselytize. Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity. The Druze faith began as an Isma'ili movement that was opposed to certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. [156], One of the most important features of the Druze village having a central role in social life is the khalwat—a house of prayer, retreat and religious unity. [110][page needed], Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. Veracity in speech and the truthfulness of the tongue. Religion and public policy Erasmus. [137], The Druze follow seven moral precepts or duties that are considered the core of the faith. [92] Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of treachery by the Beylerbey of Damascus in 1662. One advisor to the Syrian Defense Department warned in 1946 that the Syrian army was "useless", and that the Druzes could "take Damascus and capture the present leaders in a breeze". He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions. He saw minority demands as tantamount to treason. They might or might not dress differently, although most wear a costume that was characteristic of mountain people in previous centuries. [175][176], Since Druze either emerged from Islam and share certain beliefs with Islam, its position of whether it is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial among Muslim scholars. In 1948, many Druze volunteered for the Israeli army and no Druze villages were destroyed or permanently abandoned. As religions go, the Druze faith is not especially old, having been formed roughly 1,000 years ago. Lebanese Druze (Arabic: دروز لبنان ‎, romanized: durūz lubnān) are Druze people with Lebanese citizenship. He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs. The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Islam,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. [49] The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims and today's more urbanized Christians. At independence the Druze, made confident by their successes, expected that Damascus would reward them for their many sacrifices on the battlefield. A large Syrian Druze community historically lived in the Golan Heights, but following wars with Israel in 1967 and 1973, many of these Druze fled to other parts of Syria; most of those who remained live in a handful of villages in the disputed zone, while only a few live in the narrow remnant of Quneitra Governorate that is still under effective Syrian control. The Druze always played a far more important role in Syrian politics than its comparatively small population would suggest. Suliman Bashear - Palestinian-Israeli scholar of Islam; Similarities between the Druze and Christians include commonalities in their view of monogamous marriage and divorce, as well as belief in the oneness of God and theophany. He later took refuge in Jezzine's grotto, closely followed by Küçük Ahmet Pasha who eventually caught up with him and his family. The Druze believe he went into Occultation with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin. They are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not fully allow non Druzes in, though they themselves integrate fully in their adopted homelands. [76], In 1043, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin declared that the sect would no longer accept new pledges, and since that time proselytism has been prohibited awaiting al-Hakim's return at the Last Judgment to usher in a new Golden Age. [177][178][179] Ibn Taymiyya a prominent Muslim scholar muhaddith, dismissed the Druze as non-Muslims,[180] and his fatwa cited that Druzes: "Are not at the level of ′Ahl al-Kitāb (People of the Book) nor mushrikin (polytheists). [160][159], Historically the relationship between the Druze and Muslims has been characterized by intense persecution. But unlike the Kurds, who are largely Muslim, the Druze are a unique religious and ethnic group. Lebanon: J 31%, E 22%, K 21%, R 14%, L 10%. [110][page needed], During the four years of Adib Shishakli's rule in Syria (December 1949 to February 1954) (on 25 August 1952: Adib al-Shishakli created the Arab Liberation Movement (ALM), a progressive party with pan-Arabist and socialist views),[111] the Druze community was subjected to a heavy attack by the Syrian government. In the outcome of the revolt, 2,000 Druze were killed, a similar number wounded, and hundreds of Druze fighters imprisoned. Literature. The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes, but at the same time, he is present. Emir Mulhim exercised Iltizam taxation rights in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon. [61], The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the Levant.[62]. Religion Quiz / Seven Prophets of the Druze Random Religion or Judaism Quiz Can you name the Seven Prophets of the Druze? The religion was created in the 10th and 11th centuries in Egypt, with aspects of Hindu and Greek philosophy incorporated into the tenets of Islam. [86][page needed], The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and coexistence,[95][96][97][98] with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods, including 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war. I thought I would make one for you … Holy places of the Druze are archaeological sites important to the community and associated with religious holidays[155] – the most notable example being Nabi Shu'ayb, dedicated to Jethro, who is a central figure of the Druze religion. "-, R. Scott Kennedy "The Druze of the Golan: A Case of Non-Violent Resistance". (+1) 202-857-8562 | Fax [110] To this end, al-Shishakli encouraged the stigmatization of minorities. However, studies done on larger samples showed that L-M20 averages 5% in Israeli Druze,[Footnote 1] 8% in Lebanese Druze,[Footnote 2] and it was not found in a sample of 59 Syrian Druze. Fakhr ad Din II was succeeded in 1635 by his nephew Ahmed Ma'an, who ruled through his death in 1658. A human soul will transfer only to a human body, in contrast to the Hindu and Buddhist belief systems, according to which souls can transfer to any living creature. [193] [242], A 2008 study published on the genetic background of Druze communities in Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. [110][page needed], In 1967, a community of Druze in the Golan Heights came under Israeli control, today numbering 23,000 (in 2019). [219][220] The Deir el Qamar Synagogue was built in 1638, during the Ottoman era in Lebanon, to serve the local Jewish population, some of whom were part of the immediate entourage of Fakhr-al-Din II. The colours also appear on the Druze flag. [191] On the other hand scholars argue that Druze recite the Shahada as manifestation of taqiya; a precautionary dissimulation or denial of religious belief and practice in the face of persecution, and that regards the Druze as part of the Muslim World (Beside the Shia Muslims and Alawites) by Al Azhar University was for political reasons,[192] as Gamal Abdel Nasser saw it as a tool to spread his appeal and influence across the entire Arab world. (+1) 202-419-4372 | Media Inquiries. The juhal (“ignorant ones”) accept the faith on the basis of the tradition handed down from generation to generation. Druze make pilgrimages to this site on the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb. [citation needed], The time of the call was seen as a revolution of truth, with missionaries preaching its message all around the Middle East. Answer: The Druze religion is associated with an ethnic group living in the Near East. The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes, but at the same time, he is present. Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Din II beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule. [213] Both religions venerated John the Baptist,[149] Saint George,[214] Elijah,[149] and other common figures. The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī (from Persian darzi, "seamster") who was an early preacher. [157], The second type of religious shrine is one associated with the anniversary of a historic event or death of a prophet. Mulhim's forces battled and defeated those of Mustafa Pasha, Beylerbey of Damascus, in 1642, but he is reported by historians to have been otherwise loyal to Ottoman rule. His increasingly chauvinistic notions of Arab nationalism were predicated on the denial that "minorities" existed in Syria. POPULATION: 1 to 1.5 million (2007) LANGUAGE: Arabic RELIGION: Secret Druze faith (Muhwahhidun) INTRODUCTION. Both faiths give a prominent place to Jesus:[147][148] Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, and in the Druze faith, Jesus is considered an important prophet of God,[147][148] being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. About six-in-ten Druze men included in our survey say they have served (45%) or currently are serving (15%) in the Israeli military. The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most of the modern Druze can trace their origin to the Wadi al-Taym in Southern Lebanon, which is named after an Arab tribe Taymour-Allah (formerly Taymour-Allat) which, according to Islamic historian al-Tabari, first came from the Arabian Peninsula into the valley of the Euphrates where they had been Christianized prior to their migration into the Lebanon. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma'an (the mountain home of the Ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze. They are found primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Israel, with small communities in Jordan. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. [173] Those were no ordinary killings in the Druze's narrative, they were meant to eradicate the whole community according to the Druze narrative. [38] Druze believe that at the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind (al-ʻaql al-kullī). Fakhr-al-Din II was the first ruler in modern Lebanon to open the doors of his country to foreign Western influences. At that time, the movement enlisted a large number of adherents. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Among Israeli Jews, 75% of men and 57% of women currently serve in the military or have served in the past (Israeli Jewish men and women are required to serve, with some exemptions). [198] Islam teaches dawah, unlike the Druze who do not accept converts to their faith. They are Arabs who speak the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of the Levant (eastern Mediterranean). Jean-Marc Aractingi, La Face Cachée des Druzes " Les Francs-Maçons de l'Orient" , 251 pages, Editeur : Independently published (6 juillet 2020), Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Les Druzes et la Franc-maçonnerie", in, Jean-Marc Aractingi, "Points de convergence dans les rituels et symboles chez les Druzes et chez les francs-maçons", in, Pinhas Inabri "Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-ʻAql is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position. [citation needed] Al-Hakim convinced some heretical followers such as al-Darazi of his soteriological divinity and officially declared the Divine call after issuing a decree promoting religious freedom. But instead of dispersing throughout the world after their separation, the full range of lineages can still be found within the Druze population. Roughly two-thirds say they have a special responsibility to take care of Druze in need around the world. [189][190] The fatwa declares that the Druze are Muslims because they recite the twofold Shahada, and believe in the Qur'an and monotheism and do not oppose Islam in word or deed. Druse, Muwahhid, Mowahhidoon, Mo'wa'he'doon, Taw'heed Faith) Sponsored link. While 42% of Druze say a way can be found for Israel and an independent Palestinian state to coexist peacefully, 51% of Muslims, 45% of Christians and 43% of Jews also take this view. Today, 1 million-plus members of this community live primarily in Syria and Lebanon and, to a lesser extent, in Israel and Jordan. [72], In an attempt to gain the support of al-Hakim, al-Darazi started preaching that al-Hakim and his ancestors were the incarnation of God. [129] Other ancient Druze writings include the Rasa'il al-Hind (Epistles of India) and the previously lost (or hidden) manuscripts such as al-Munfarid bi-Dhatihi and al-Sharia al-Ruhaniyya as well as others including didactic and polemic treatises. [86][page needed]. Unlike the Mu'tazila, however, and similar to some branches of Sufism, the Druze believe in the concept of Tajalli (meaning "theophany"). 4In Israel, the Druze are active in public life and subject to the military draft. [46] Most recently, Druze were targeted by Islamic extremists. [96][162][163][164] The Druze faith is often classified as a branch of Isma'ili. [86][page needed]. In 1018, ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some sources claim that he was executed by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Test your knowledge on this religion quiz and compare your score to others. The origin of the family goes back to a Prince Ma'an who made his appearance in the Lebanon in the days of the 'Abbasid caliph al-Mustarshid (1118–35 CE). [128][page needed] Tajalli is often misunderstood by scholars and writers and is usually confused with the concept of incarnation. [221][222] During the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, the Jewish community in Safad was attacked by Druze rebels in early July 1838, the violence against the Jews included plundering their homes and desecrating their synagogues. The researchers found the following frequencies of Y-chromosomal haplogroups:[243][dubious – discuss], A 2016 study based on testing samples of Druze in the Syria (region) in comparison with ancient humans (including Anatolian and Armenian), and on Geographic Population Structure (GPS) tool by converting genetic distances into geographic distances, concluded that Druze might hail from the Zagros Mountains and the surroundings of Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, then they later migrated south to settle in the mountainous regions in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.[244]. The Druze A secretive religion tries to secure its future. In Syria, most Druzites live in the Jebel al-Druze, a rugged and mountainous region in the southwest of the country, which is more than 90 percent Druze inhabited; some 120 villages are exclusively so. 9) From wich countrie Druze people come to visit Jethro prophet. About seven-in-ten Druze (72%) say their religious identity is very important to them. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym. The Ma'an tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, Fakhr-al-Din, had the same traditional origin. The number 5 contains an unstated significance within the Druze faith, it's believed in this area that great prophets come in groups of five. This propaganda also was broadcast in the Arab world, mainly Egypt. For example, Muhammad is considered a natiq, Ali is considered an asas, but both are considered prophets. Take the Quiz: The Druze Religion. [40][41][42] Druze are theologically distinct from Muslims due to their eclectic system of doctrines,[43][44] such as the belief in theophany and reincarnation, and they do not accept nor follow the five pillars of Islam.[45]. The two faiths share a common place of origin in the Middle East and consider themselves to be monotheistic. 19, No. Absolute submission and resignation to God's divine will in both secret and public. Sep 21st 2018. [52][83], It was during the period of Crusader rule in Levant (1099–1291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb region of the Chouf Mountains. [241], These findings are consistent with the Druze oral tradition, that claims that the adherents of the faith came from diverse ancestral lineages stretching back tens of thousands of years. For Druze in particular, this lack of religious intermarriage may also be a reflection of the community’s history. Those few initiated in the Druze holy books are called ʿuqqāl,[158] while the "ignorant", regular members of the group are called juhhāl. Sort by. [226] Since the establishment of the state of Israel, the Druze have demonstrated solidarity with Israel and distanced themselves from Arab and Islamic radicalism. I rely on our Moula Al-Hakim the lonely God, the individual, the eternal, who is out of couples and numbers, (someone) the son of (someone) has approved recognition enjoined on himself and on his soul, in a healthy of his mind and his body, permissibility aversive is obedient and not forced, to repudiate from all creeds, articles and all religions and beliefs on the differences varieties, and he does not know something except obedience of almighty Moulana Al-Hakim, and obedience is worship and that it does not engage in worship anyone ever attended or wait, and that he had handed his soul and his body and his money and all he owns to almighty Maulana Al-Hakim. Since that ban, the Druze population has continued to exist solely based on the continuation of its previous generations. In the first century, the five were represented by Jesus Christ,[147][148] John the Baptist,[149] Saint Matthew, Saint Mark, and Saint Luke. Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. Additionally, souls cannot be divided and the number of souls existing in the universe is finite. This resulted in friction with the new caliph who clashed militarily with the Druze community. Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, the Druze provided much of the military force behind the Syrian Revolution of 1925–27. Fakhr-al-Din was captured, taken to Istanbul, and imprisoned with two of his sons in the infamous Yedi Kule prison. If I crush the head, the serpent will die." The Druze strictly avoid iconography, but use five colors ("Five Limits" خمس حدود khams ḥudūd) as a religious symbol:[year needed] green, red, yellow, blue, and white. This is done in order to keep the religion from those who are not yet prepared to accept the teachings and therefore could misunderstand it, as well as to protect the community when it is in danger. [128][page needed], Druze Sacred texts include the Quran and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). The Hauran rebellion was a violent Druze uprising against Ottoman authority in the Syrian province, which erupted in May 1909. 2010). The Five Prophets of Druze. Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze. The Seven Druze precepts are:[138], Complicating their identity is the custom of taqiyya—concealing or disguising their beliefs when necessary—that they adopted from Ismailism and the esoteric nature of the faith, in which many teachings are kept secretive. Is being Hispanic a matter of race, ethnicity or both? The holy places become more important to the community in times of adversity and calamity. The list of Druze includes prominent Druze figures who are notable in their areas of expertise. (+1) 202-419-4300 | Main [113][114][115], The Qalb Loze massacre was a reported massacre of Syrian Druze on 10 June 2015 in the village of Qalb Loze in Syria's northwestern Idlib Governorate in which 20–24 Druze were killed. Each color pertains to a metaphysical power called ḥadd, literally "a limit", as in the distinctions that separate humans from animals, or the powers that make human the animalistic body. [26][27], The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith. [93], During the Ottoman–Habsburg War (1683–1699), Ahmad Ma'n collaborated in a rebellion against the Ottomans which extended beyond his death. Al-Farouqi also disarmed the population, extracted significant taxes, and launched a census of the region. The Druze religion is a small, old, unique, and mysterious practice. [57][59], Large communities of Druze also live outside the Middle East, in Australia, Canada, Europe, Latin America (mainly Venezuela,[60] Colombia and Brazil[dubious – discuss]), the United States, and West Africa. [82], Al-Hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride – presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder sister Sitt al-Mulk. After the middle of the twelfth century, the Ma'an family superseded the Tanukhs in Druze leadership. See results from the Seven Prophets of the Druze Quiz on Sporcle, the best trivia site on the internet! Several philosophers and other influential people are also held in high regard by the Druze, including Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Alexander the Great. [72] Al-Darazi argued that he should be the leader of the daʻwah rather than Hamza ibn Ali and gave himself the title "Lord of the Guides" because Caliph al-Hakim referred to Hamza as "Guide of the Consented". Just 18% of Druze say a two-state solution is not possible – a lower share than among Muslims (32%) and Jews (45%) in the country. They strongly believe in mysticism and reincarnation, and hold Moses , Jethro, John the Baptist, Jesus and Mohammed all to be prophets. The relationship between the Druze and Jews has been controversial,[215] Anti-Jewish (antisemitic) bias material is contained in the Druze literature such as the Epistles of Wisdom; for example in an epistle ascribed to one of the founders of Druzism, Baha al-Din al-Muqtana,[216] probably written sometime between AD 1027 and AD 1042, accused Jews of killing the sacred prophets. At the end of the 17th century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed Sunni Islam, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. In Israel, the Druze are a close-knit community active in public life, according to a new Pew Research Center study of Israel. The Maronite-Druze conflict in 1840–60 was an outgrowth of the Maronite Christian independence movement,[citation needed] directed against the Druze, Druze feudalism, and the Ottoman-Turks.